Saturday, May 10, 2008

My Notes on PMP

Note: My new PMBOK V4 are shared under My Notes for PMBOK V4

My Condensed Notes on PMP Preparation

  1. According to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), a “project” is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.”
  2. Triple constraint- project scope, time and cost
  3. A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped
    together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business
    objectives. The projects or programs in the portfolio may not necessarily be
    interdependent or directly related
  4. Project Portfolio Management is a management process to select the projects that
    should be invested in. Specifically, it is the selection process based on the need,
    profitability, and affordability of the proposed projects.
  5. A project management office (PMO) is an organizational unit to centralize and
    coordinate the management of projects under its domain. A PMO can also be referred
    to as a "program management office," "project office," or "program office." A PMO
    oversees the management of projects, programs, or a combination of both
  6. Project management is a set of tools and techniques that are used to organize the
    work of the project to help bring about a successful project.
  7. The contract between the organization and the vendor super cedes all other workrelated
  8. Customers, internal or external, are the most important stakeholders in a project
  9. Scope verification must take place at the end of each phase
  10. Money already spent on a project is called sunk cost and should not be taken into
    consideration when determining if a project should continue. Instead, the cost of the
    work to complete is one of the elements that should be taken into consideration when
    considering to kill a project
  11. Phase end reviews are also called phase exits, phase gates, or kill points.
  12. The project life cycle goes through a series of phases to create the product
  13. Project managers manage things, but lead people. What's the difference?
    Management is the process of getting the results that are expected by project
    Leadership is the ability to motivate and inspire individuals to work towards those
    expected results.
  14. Project
    1. Projects don't last forever. They are temporary and unique
    2. Projects pass through logical phases to reach their completion
    3. Purpose of Project is to attain its objective and then terminate
  15. Operations
    1. Operations, however, do go on and on. They are ongoing and repetitive
    2. Operations may be influenced, or even created, by the outcome of a project
    3. Objective of an ongoing operation is to sustain business
  16. Organization Structure
    1. Functional
    2. Matrix
      1. Weak
      2. Balanced
      3. Strong
    3. Projectized
  17. Organization Structure And Project Characteristics
    1. Functional
      1. PM's Authority [Little or none]
      2. Resource Availability [Little or none]
      3. Who controls Project Budget [Functional Manager]
      4. PM's Role [Part - Time]
      5. PM Admin Staff [Part - Time]
    2. Weak Matrix
      1. PM's Authority [Limited]
      2. Resource Availability [Limited]
      3. Who controls Project Budget [Functional Manager]
      4. PM's Role [Part - Time]
      5. PM Admin Staff [Part - Time]
    3. Balanced Matrix
      1. PM's Authority [Low to moderate]
      2. Resource Availability [Low to moderate]
      3. Who controls Project Budget [Mixed]
      4. PM's Role [Full - Time]
      5. PM Admin Staff [Part - Time]
    4. Strong Matrix
      1. PM's Authority [Moderate to high]
      2. Resource Availability [Moderate to high]
      3. Who controls Project Budget [Project Manager]
      4. PM's Role [Full - Time]
      5. PM Admin Staff [Full - Time]
    5. Projectized
      1. PM's Authority [High to almost total]
      2. Resource Availability [High to almost total]
      3. Who controls Project Budget [Project Manager]
      4. PM's Role [Full - Time]
      5. PM Admin Staff [Full - Time]
  18. The WBS is a decomposition of all the deliverables the project will create
  19. Inspections may also be known as:
    a. Reviews
    b. Product reviews
    c. Audits
    d. Walk-throughs
  20. Graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT) models allow for loops and
    conditional branching
  21. Crashing adds more resources to activities to decrease their duration, which typically
    adds cost
  22. Project calendar This calendar shows when work is allowed on the project. For
    example, a project may require the project team to work nights and weekends so as
    not to disturb the ongoing operations of the organization during working hours. In
    addition, the project calendar accounts for holidays, working hours, and work shifts
    that the project will cover
  23. Resource calendar The resource calendar controls when resources, such as project
    team members, consultants, and SMEs are available to work on the project. It takes
    into account vacations, other commitments within the organization, or restrictions on
    contracted work, overtime issues, and so on
  24. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) uses a weighted average
    formula to predict the length of activities and the project. Specifically, PERT uses a
    'pessimistic,' 'optimistic,' and 'most likely' estimate to predict when the project will be
  25. The critical path is the longest path to completion in the network diagram.
  26. Activities on the critical path have no float or slack.
  27. Free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the next
    activity's scheduled start date.
  28. Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the
    project end date.
  29. Heuristic is simply a rule of thumb
  30. Crashing involves adding resources, which typically increases cost.
  31. Fast tracking adds risk as tasks are allowed to overlap
  32. Each resource in the project must be accounted for and assigned to a cost category.
    Categories include the following:
    a. Labor costs
    b. Material costs
    c. Travel costs
    d. Supplies
    e. Hardware costs
    f. Software costs
    g. Special categories (inflation, cost reserve, and so on)
  33. There are three generally accepted categories of estimating accuracy:
    a. Rough order of magnitude This estimate is “rough” and is used during the
    Initiating processes and in top-down estimates. The range of variance for the
    estimate can be –25 percent to +75 percent.
    b. Budget estimate This estimate is also somewhat broad and is used early in
    the planning processes and also in top-down estimates. The range of variance
    for the estimate can be –10 percent to +25 percent.
    c. Definitive estimates This estimate type is one of the most accurate. It is used
    late in the planning processes and is associated with bottom-up estimating. The
    range of variance for the estimate can be –5 percent to +10 percent.
  34. The opportunity cost is the amount of the project that was not chosen
  35. Quality is the sum of the characteristics of a product that allow it to meet the demands
    or expectations of the project
  36. Grade, according to the PMBOK, “is a category or rank given to entities having the
    same functional use but different technical characteristics.”
    For example, there are different grades of paint, different grades of metal, and even
    different grades of travel.
  37. The design of experiments (DOE) approach relies on statistical what-if scenarios to determine what variables within a project will result in the best outcome.
  38. Design of experiments is an analytical technique that identifies the elements or
    variables that will have the greatest effect on overall project outcomes
  39. There are five types of powers the project manager yields: (R F C E R)
    a. Reward
    b. Formal
    c. Coercive (penalty) d. Expert
    e. Referent
  40. Among the above powers Reward, Formal & Coercive (penalty) come with the "Position"
  41. Expert & Reward are considered the best types of powers and Coercive (penalty) is "Least" for obvious reasons
  42. Seven reasons for conflict, in order of most common to least common:
    a. Schedules
    b. Priorities
    c. Resources
    d. Technical beliefs
    e. Administrative policies and procedures
    f. Costs
    g. Personalities
  43. Five different approaches to conflict resolution
    a. Problem solving (win - win) [BEST]
    b. Forcing (win - lose)
    c. Compromising (lose - lose)
    d. Smoothing
    e. Withdrawal
    NOTE: Forcing (win - lose) and Problem Solving (win - win) are the ONLY two
    modes that result in a RESOLUTION to the conflict.
  44. The halo effect is the promoting the person to manage projects since he/she is good at a technology
  45. Confronting (Problem Solving) is the best problem-solving technique since it meets the problem directly
  46. In a Weak Matrix structure, functional management will have more authority than the
    project manager
  47. Within communicating there are five characteristics that affect the message:
    a. Paralingual: pitch, tone, and voice inflections
    b. Feedback: sender confirmation of the message by asking questions, for a
    response, or other confirmation signals
    c. Active listening: receiver confirms message receipt
    d. Effective listening: receiver offers confirmation of the message, such as nodding
    their head, asking questions, or other interactions.
    e. Nonverbal: facial expressions, hand gestures, and body language
  48. One of the first inputs to risk management is the project charter
  49. Historical information is always an excellent source of information for risk identification
  50. Brainstorming is likely the most common approach to risk identification
  51. Force majeure is a powerful and unexpected event, such as a hurricane or other
  52. Contracts are known by many names:
    a. Agreement
    b. Subcontract
    c. Purchase order
    d. Memorandum of understanding
  53. All contracts in the United States are backed by the US court systems
  54. According to the Guide to the PMBOK, the project charter should be published by a
    manager external to the project but with sufficient power and authority to carry it off.
  55. When a project is performed under contract, the contract can serve as the project
  56. Cost reimbursable contracts are used when the degree of uncertainty is high and when
    the project requires a large investment prior to completion of the project
  57. The scope statement contains an exhaustive list of the project deliverables, their
    requirements, and measurable criteria used to determine project completion
  58. The scope statement is an output to the Scope Definition process and is used to create
    the WBS
  59. Cause-and-effect diagrams, also called Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams, show the
    relationship between the effects of quality problems and their causes
  60. The primary function of the Closing process is to formalize project completion and
    disseminate this information to the project participants
  61. According to the Guide to the PMBOK, the project manager is identified and assigned
    as an output of the Initiation process. In practice, project managers are very often
    assigned at the beginning of this process.
  62. The work package level is the lowest level in the WBS. Time and cost estimation is
    easily determined at this level as are resource assignments. Quality control
    measurements can be determined at this level as well.
  63. The code of accounts is assigned to the elements in the WBS
  64. Each element in the WBS is assigned a unique identifier. These are collectively known
    as the code of accounts
  65. The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) links project roles and responsibilities with
    project activities
  66. The WBS is the deliverables-oriented hierarchy of project work.
  67. The staffing management plan details how and when human resources will be added to
    and taken off the project. It is an output of Organizational Planning
  68. Analogous estimating is not a qualitatively based technique. It is a top-down
    estimating technique that considers previous similar activities when calculating
  69. Mandatory dependency, also known as hard logic. Mandatory dependencies are
    inherent in the nature of the work
  70. Discretionary dependencies, also called preferred logic, preferential logic, and soft
    logic, are defined by the project management team
  71. "Best Practice” often refers to a specific sequence of work, described in terms of “Soft
    Logic”. Sometimes "Experience" is also attributes to Soft Logic
  72. Finish to start is the most commonly used logical relationship in PDM and most project
    management software packages
  73. There are three major documents and each has a specific purpose:
    a. Project Charter. Formally authorizes the project.
    b. Project Scope Statement. States what work is to be accomplished and what
    deliverables need to be produced.
    c. Project Management Plan. States how the work will be performed
  74. Philip Crosby devised the zero defects theory, meaning do it right the first time. Proper
    Quality Planning leads to less rework and higher productivity
  75. According to Bruce Tuckmann, “Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing ” are the
    stages of team development
  76. The performing stage is similar to Maslow’s self-actualization
  77. Myers Brigg’s theory states that “Sensing” and “Intuition” personality types are related
    to “Information” preference in other words ‘Hard Data verses what might be’
  78. Juran = Fitness for use, conformance. Quality by design.
  79. Joseph M. Juran is noted for his fitness for use premise. Simply put, this means the
    stakeholders’ and customers’ expectations are met or exceeded.
  80. W. Edwards Deming suggested that as much as 85 percent of the cost of quality is a
    management problem
  81. Shewhart = Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle.
  82. TQM = Quality must be managed in and must be a continuous process
  83. Six Sigma = Six Sigma is a measurement-based strategy; no more than 3.4 defects
    per million.
  84. Kaizen = Continuous improvement; improve quality of people first.
  85. Continuous improvement = Watch continuously for ways to improve quality.
  86. Statement of work (SOW) comprises of
    1. Business Need
    2. Product Scope Description and
    3. Strategic Plan
  87. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative
  88. Organization, Environmental & external assumptions should be addressed by the
    Project Charter
  89. WBS Dictionary” is a document which describes the details for each component in the
    WBS. It includes a breif description of the of the “Scope” or “Statement of the work” ,
    defined deliverables, a list of associated activities, and a list of milestones
  90. Project Manager must consider “cultural differences” while deciding upon
    recongnization and rewards during team development.
  91. Technical inability and poor risk management by the contractor is mostly the reason
    for the project not to meet the customer expectations
  92. Critical Chain Project Management” is typically the “Management of Buffers”
  93. Critical Chain is another schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project
    schedule to account for limited resources
  94. The Critical Chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities
    to maintain focus on the planned activity durations
  95. Cost Of Quality (COQ) are the cost types in modern quality management
    1. “Prevention Costs”,
    2. “appraisal costs” &
    3. “failure costs”
  96. The key components of the communication model include:
    a. Encode.
    b. Message.
    c. Medium.
    d. Noise.
    e. Decode.

  97. Common formats for performance reports include
    1. Bar charts,
    2. S curves,
    3. Histograms, and
    4. Tables.
  98. Face-to-face meetings are the most effective means for communicating and resolving
    issues with stakeholders.
  99. Order of Magnitude estimates are also knows as conceptual, ballpark or preliminary
  100. “Tight Matrix” is putting all project personnel together. Also referred as “collocated”
  101. Strategies for “Negative Risks or threats” (Avoid Transfer Mitigate)
  102. Strategies for “Postive Risks or Opportunities” (Share Exploit Enhance)
  103. Common Strategy for both threats and opportunities is “Acceptance”
  104. There are 3 stages of “reaction to stress” (Alarm, Resistance & Exhaustion)
  105. Some of the traits/qualities exhibited by effective leaders are
    1. Flexibility,
    2. Ambition,
    3. Intelligence,
    4. Decisiveness,
    5. Creativity,
    6. Persistence and
    7. Energy
  106. Detailed Tasks are detailed in “Project Schedule”, which is part of Project Plan
    and note its NOT WBS. WBS is a “deliverable oriented document”
  107. An abnormal trend is formed when seven or more consecutive data points reflect a
    steadily increasing or decreasing pattern over time
  108. Scope Verification is concerned with the acceptance of deliverables
  109. Quality control is concerned with making sure the deliverables meet quality
    requirements. Quality Control is done first; both are Monitoring and Controlling
  110. Quality Assurance (Executing) is focused on process: process analysis, quality audits,
  111. Quality Control (Monitoring and Controlling) is focused on sampling results to see if
    they meet quality standards
  112. Code of Accounts identifies WBS items; Chart of Accounts monitors project costs by
  113. In decision tree, a circle is a chance
  114. In Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) or Activity on Node (AON) network
    diagrams, nodes are activities and arrows are dependencies
  115. In Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) or Activity on Arrow (AOA) network diagrams,
    arrows are activities and nodes are dependencies
  116. Dummies are only used on ADM
  117. ADM tasks can only have FS relationships
  118. PDM uses one time estimate to determine duration, while ADM can use more than one time estimate.
  119. Scope Verification is done during Project monitoring and controlling BUT Product
    verification is done during the Project Closing
  120. Audits:
    o Quality Audit in Perform QA,
    o Risk Audit in Risk Monitoring and Control,
    o Inspections and Audits in Contract Administration,
    o Procurement Audits in Close Contracts
  121. The outputs of process groups are:
    o initiating: charter and preliminary scope statement;
    o planning: project management plan;
    o executing: work results;
    o monitoring: corrective actions;
    o closing: project product.
  122. Reporting formats:
    o Forecast Report (what is expected to happen on a project),
    o Progress Report (what happened since the last report),
    o Status Report (state of the project at the current time),
    o Earned Value Report (focuses on Earned Value Management),
    o Variance Report (what happened vs. what should have happened).
  123. Performance Reporting is a Controlling process. It creates Performance Reports, which
    are comparisons of performance to the performance baselines. These are typically
    done in tabular or graphical format.
  124. Information Distribution is an Executing process. It creates Organizational Process
    Assets such as project presentations, stakeholder notifications and status reports.
  125. Develop Project Team is an Executing Process. It creates a Team Performance
    Assessment, and helps you determine what additional training would be beneficial.
  126. Manage Project Team is a Controlling Process. It creates input to performance
    appraisals as well as recommended changes, corrective actions and preventative
  127. Scope Baseline includes
    1. Project Scope Statement,
    2. WBS, &
    3. WBS Dictionary
  128. A large portion of the PM’s time while the work is being done is spent measuring and
    implementing corrective actions
  129. Project Close Process includes creation of two procedures
    o Administrative closure procedure and
    o Contract closure procedure
    The difference between the two is focus, formality and frequency. Administrative
    closure focuses on closing the project or project phase whereas Contract closure
    focuses on closing a contract that is part of the project
  130. Contingency Reserve (Known Unknowns) is for the risks remaining after the Risk Response Planning
    Management Reserve (Unknown Unknows is any extra amount reserved t cover “unforeseen risks”
    Cost Baseline will include the Contingency Reserve
    Cost Budget will include the Management Reserve
  131. Quality is defined as the degree to which the project fulfills requirement
  133. The Project Manager ultimately has the responsibility for the Product of the Project and
  134. Senior Management is responsible for the Quality of entire Organization
  135. Cost of Nonconformance is greater than the cost of conformance
  136. Most projects will fit one of the six needs and demands
    o Market demand
    o Business need
    o Customer request
    o Technological advance
    o Legal requirement
    o Social need
  137. The project charter (which is an output of the Develop the Project Charter process) is the
    written acknowledgment that the project exists. The project charter names the project
    manager and gives that person the authority to assign organizational resources to the
  138. Net present value (NPV) assumes reinvestment is made at the cost of capital
  139. IRR assumes reinvestment at the IRR rate and is the discount rate when NPV is equal to
  140. Payback period does not consider the time value of money and is therefore the least
    precise of all the cash flow analysis techniques
  141. Preliminary project scope statement describes the objectives of the project and the high level requirements needed to satisfy stakeholder expectations
  142. The PMIS in the Develop Project Management Plan process includes a subsystem called the
    configuration management system
  143. Change control system, which is a subsystem of the configuration management system
  144. Stakeholder analysis is a tool and technique of Scope Definition used to determine and
    document the needs, wants, and expectations of stakeholders and prioritize and quantify
    those needs into project requirements
  145. The purpose of the project scope statement is to document the project objectives,
    deliverables, and requirements so that they can be used to direct the project team’s work
    and as a basis for future project decisions
  146. The scope statement further elaborates the project objectives, deliverables, requirements,
    and constraints and assumptions defined in the preliminary scope statement. It serves as a basis for future project decisions
  147. Alternatives identification is a tool and technique of the Scope Definition process that
    includes brainstorming and lateral thinking techniques
  148. Poor scope definition might lead to cost increases, rework, schedule delays, and poor
  149. According to the PMBOK Guide, functionality and specific conditions that must be met in
    order to satisfy the project, contract, standard, or specification describe the criteria for
    requirements, not objectives
  150. Product analysis (TT Scope Definition) includes techniques such as value engineering, value analysis, systems analysis, systems engineering, product breakdown, and functional
  151. The product scope description can be used as an input to the Scope Definition process
    when the project charter and/or preliminary project scope statement are missing
  152. The lowest level of any WBS is called the work package level
  153. For the exam, remember that the key to DOE is that it equips you with a statistical
    framework that allows you to change the variables that have the greatest effect on overall
    project outcomes at once instead of changing one variable at a time.
  154. Quality checklists are an output of the Quality Planning process, and checklist analysis is a
    tool and technique of the Risk Identification process
  155. Cost-benefit analysis considers trade-offs in the Quality Planning process
  156. Benchmarking compares previous similar activities to the current project activities to
    provide a standard to measure performance against.
  157. Failure costs; is also known as the cost of poor quality. Failure costs include both internal and external costs.
    Internal failure costs are costs associated with not meeting the customer’s expectations
    while you still had control over the product. This results in rework, scrapping, and
  158. The process improvement plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan and
    targets inefficiencies in a process or activity. The quality baseline is used to document the
    quality objectives of the project and is used as a basis for future Quality processes
  159. The WBS dictionary should be documented with the code of account identifier, an SOW, the responsible organization, and a milestone schedule for the WBS components
  160. Design of experiments is a tool and technique of the Quality Planning process that provides statistical analysis for changing key product or process elements all at once (not one at a time) to optimize the process
  161. According to the PMBOK Guide, the risk management plan should include the following
    o Methodology
    o Roles and responsibilities
    o Budgeting
    o Timing
    o Risk categories
    o Definitions of risk probability and impact
    o Probability and impact matrix
    o Revised stakeholder tolerances
    o Reporting formats
    o Tracking
  162. The output of the Risk Identification process is the risk register. The risk register contains
    the following elements:
    o List of identified risks
    o List of potential responses
    o Root causes of risks
    o Updated risk categories
  163. Risk urgency assessment is a tool and technique of Qualitative Risk Analysis process
  164. Qualitative Risk Analysis is a fast and easy method of determining probability and impact
  165. The risk management plan details how risk management processes will be implemented,
    monitored, and controlled throughout the life of the project.
  166. The risk management plan does not include responses to risks or triggers. Responses to
    risks are documented in the risk register as part of the Risk Response Planning process
  167. The information-gathering techniques in the Risk Identification process are
    o brainstorming,
    o the Delphi technique,
    o interviewing,
    o root cause identification, and
    o SWOT analysis.
  168. Quantitative Risk Analysis analyzes the probability of risks and their consequences using a
    numerical rating
  169. Monte Carlo analysis is a simulation technique & not a Modeling technique
  170. When the question describes sensitivity analysis, which is a tool and technique of the
    Quantitative Risk Analysis process. Tornado diagrams are often used to display sensitivity
    analysis data
  171. The simplest form of “Risk Analysis” is “Sensitivity Analysis”
  172. Following options are diagramming techniques of the Risk Identification process
    o Ishikawa diagram
    o Process flowchart
    o Influence diagram
  173. Passive acceptance is when the team has decided to take no action and make no plans for
    the risk. This is a strategy that can be used for either positive or negative risks.
  174. The PMBOK Guide divides contracts into three categories:
    o Fixed price or lump sum (biggest risk is borne by the seller & good when
    original scope is well defined)
    o Cost reimbursable (biggest risk is borne by the buyer)
    o Time and materials (T&M)
  175. The three outputs of the Plan Contracting process are
    o procurement documents (request for proposal (RFP), request for information
    (RFI), invitation for bid (IFB), request for quotation (RFQ)),
    o evaluation criteria,and
    o contract statement of work updates.
  176. Understand the difference between bid and/or quotation and proposal for the exam. Bids or quotations are used when price is the only deciding factor among bidders. Proposals are
    used when there are considerations other than price
  177. A contract statement of work (SOW) contains the details of the procurement item in clear,
    concise terms. It includes the following elements:
    o The project objectives
    o A description of the work of the project and any post project operational
    support needed
    o Concise specifications of the product or services required
    o The project schedule, time period of services, and work location
  178. According to the PMBOK Guide, using templates and checklists is one way to ensure that
    you don’t miss any key responsibilities when planning the project and will help reduce the
    amount of time spent on project planning
  179. According to the PMBOK Guide, the RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) relates the
    OBS to the WBS to assure that every component of the work of the project is assigned to
    an individual.
  180. The letters in the acronym RACI (sample portion of a type of RAM) are the designations are
    o R = Responsible for performing the work
    o A = Accountable, the one who is responsible for producing the deliverable or
    work package and approves or signs off on the work
    o C = Consult, someone who has input to the work or decisions
    o I = Inform, someone who must be informed of the decisions or results
  181. The RAM and RACI charts are tools and techniques of Human Resource Planning process
  182. Standard forms are a tool and technique of the Plan Contracting process. Standard forms
    can be nondisclosure agreements, standardized contracts, and so on.
  183. Plan Purchases and Acquisitions can directly influence the project schedule, and the project schedule can directly influence this process
  184. Resource availability is an output of the Acquire Project Team and Select Seller processes
  185. For the exam, remember that resource availability isn’t determined until the Executing
    stage and becomes an input to the Activity Resource Estimating process
  186. Remember that you cannot perform Schedule Development until you have completed all
    the following processes of project Planning: Scope Planning, Scope Definition, Create WBS,
    Risk Identification, Risk Response Planning, Plan Purchases and Acquisitions, Activity
    Resource Estimating, Activity Definition, Activity Sequencing, and Activity Duration
  187. Schedule Development has 10 tools and techniques:
    o Schedule network analysis (produces the project schedule)
    o Critical path method ()
    o Schedule compression
    o What-if scenario analysis
    o Resource leveling
    o Critical chain method
    o Project management software
    o Applying calendars
    o Adjusting leads and lags
    o Schedule model
  188. The higher the standard deviation is for an activity, the higher the risk. Since standard
    deviation measures the difference between the pessimistic and the optimistic times, a
    greater spread between the two, which results in a higher number, indicates a greater risk.
    Conversely, a low standard deviation means less risk
  189. Monte Carlo is a simulation technique that shows the probability of all the possible project
    completion dates
  190. Monte Carlo analysis can be used in the Schedule Development process to determine
    multiple, probable project durations
  191. Resource leveling can cause the original critical path to change.
  192. CPM manages the total float of schedule networks paths, whereas critical chain manages
    buffer activity durations and resources
  193. Cost aggregation (TT of Cost Budgeting) is the process of tallying the schedule activity cost estimates at the work package level and then totaling the work package levels to higher level WBS component levels
  194. Funding limit reconciliation (TT of Cost Budgeting) involves reconciling the amount of funds spent with the amount of funds budgeted for the project
  195. Cost baselines are displayed as an S curve.
  196. The primary output of Cost Estimating is activity cost estimates
  197. Parametric estimating multiplies a known element—such as the quantity of materials
    needed—by the time it takes to install or complete one unit of materials. The result is a
    total estimate for the activity
  198. The project schedule determines the start and ending dates of activities, determines float
    times, generally shows resource assignments, and details the activity sequences and
  199. Motivation can be extrinsic or intrinsic.
    o Extrinsic motivators are material rewards and might include bonuses, the use
    of a company car, stock options, gift certificates, training opportunities, extra
    time off, and so on
    o Intrinsic motivators are specific to the individual. Some people are just
    naturally driven to achieve—it’s part of their nature
  200. The introduction of a new team member will start the formation and development of the
    team all over again with the forming stage
  201. Teams in the norming stage of Develop Project Team exhibit affection and familiarity with
    one another and make joint decisions
  202. Request Seller Responses obtains bids and proposals from vendors.
  203. Select Sellers is the receipt of bids and proposals and the selection of a vendor
  204. Independent estimates (TT of Select Sellers), also called should cost estimates, are a way
    to check proposed pricing
  205. Fait accompli is a tactic used during contract negotiations where one party convinces the
    other that the particular issue is no longer relevant or cannot be changed
  206. The process analysis technique (TT of Perform Quality Assurance process) includes root
    cause analysis to analyze a problem and solution and to create preventive actions
  207. You are preparing project performance appraisals and have decided you’d like each team
    member to get feedback regarding their performance from several sources, including
    peers, superiors, and subordinates. This is called 360-degree feedback and is part of the
    project performance appraisals tool and technique of the Manage Project Team process.
  208. Understand for the exam that configuration management involves
    o identifying the physical characteristics of the product, service, or result of the
    project (or its individual components);
    o controlling changes to those characteristics; and
    o Documenting changes to verify that requirements are met.
    o It also includes the change management system and
    o documents the process for requesting, tracking, and determining whether
    change requests should be approved or denied.
  209. Activities associated with configuration change management in the Integrated Change
    Control process
    o Configuration identification
    o Configuration status accounting and
    o Configuration verification and auditing
  210. Integrated Change Control, Schedule Control, and Cost Control are all concerned with
    three issues:
    o influencing the things that cause change,
    o determining that change is needed or has happened,
    o and managing the change
  211. Change control systems are documented procedures that describe
    o How to submit change requests.
    o They track the status of the change requests,
    o document the management impacts of change,
    o track the change approval status, and
    o define the level of authority needed to approve changes.
  212. Change control systems do not approve or deny the changes—that’s the responsibility of the configuration control board (CCB)
  213. The configuration control board (CCB) has the authority to approve or deny change
    requests. Their authority is defined and outlined by the organization
  214. Recommended” corrective action is an output of several of the change control processes,
    including Scope Change Control, Schedule Control, Cost Control, Risk Monitoring and
    Control, and Perform Quality Control.
  215. “Approved” corrective action is an output of the Integrated Change Control process.
    Remember that Integrated Change Control is where all change requests are processed and
    either approved or denied.
  216. Also note that corrective action is an output of the Monitoring and Controlling processes
    and an input to the Executing processes
  217. Cost variances (both positive and negative) are calculated using a performance
    measurement analysis tool (specifically earned value techniques)
  218. EVT (earned value techniques) compares what you’ve received or produced to what you’ve
  219. Workarounds are unplanned responses. Workarounds deal with negative risk events as
    they occur.
  220. Schedule variances will sometimes—but not always—impact the schedule. Changes to
    noncritical path tasks will not likely impact the schedule, but changes to critical path tasks
    will always impact the schedule
  221. Budget updates might require cost rebaselining
  222. You can remember the difference between Scope Verification and Perform Quality Control this way:
    o Scope Verification = accepting work results
    o Perform Quality Control = checking for correct work results (assuring that the
    quality requirements are met)
  223. Projects come to an end for several reasons:
    o They’re completed successfully.
    o They’re canceled or killed prior to completion.
    o They evolve into ongoing operations and no longer exist as projects.
  224. Four formal types of project endings exist that you might need to know for the exam:
    o Addition
    o Starvation
    o Integration
    o Extinction
  225. For the exam, remember that product verification performed during the Closing processes
    determines whether all of the work of the project was completed correctly according to the
    contract terms and satisfactorily according to stakeholder expectations, whereas product
    documentation is verified and accepted during the Scope Verification process. One more
    note: when projects end prematurely, the Scope Verification process is where the level of
    detail concerning the amount of work completed gets documented.
  226. Contract documentation is an input to both the Close Project and Contract Closure processes
  227. Note PMI defines “Scope Statement” as the basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project scope among project
  228. Scope Verification
    o Verified work results
  229. Perform Quality Control
    o Assured quality requirements were met
  230. Close Project
    o Product verification (work was correct and satisfactory)
    o Collecting project documents
    o Disseminating final acceptance notice
    o Documenting lessons learned
    o Archiving project records
  231. Contract Closure
    o Product verification (work was correct and satisfactory)
    o Formal acceptance and closure
  232. WBS element changes are scope changes. Schedule revisions are often required as a result of scope changes.
  233. Close Project and Contract Closure are the processes in the Closing process group and are
    performed in that order
  234. The work performance information is reviewed to determine the status of project activities
    and make certain the project goals and objectives are met. This is an input to the Close
    Project process
  235. According to the PMBOK Guide, the procurement audit examines the procurement process
    from Procurement Planning through Contract Administration
  236. Integrity means adhering to an ethical standard
  237. Hammocks are summary-level activities or aggregate activities shown as a summary activity on a project schedule network diagram.
  238. Contract Negotiation has “5’ Sequential steps (Note Agreement is AFTER Closure)
    o Protocol
    o Probing
    o Scratch Bargaining
    o Closure and
    o Agreement
  239. The Primary Objective of establishing a Quality Assurance Process is “For Quality
  240. “Quality Function Deployment Process” identifies what the customer’s needs are
    (Spoken/unspoken words) and translates those needs into technical requirements. Appropriate for each stage of the product development life cycle
  241. Decision Tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one of the alternatives
  242. The Project Charter provides the
    o high level requirements,
    o constraints,
    o assumptions,
    o stakeholders and
    o the measures of success.
  243. Based on this information, or the lack of it, the Charter is an excellent source to start to
    identify the Project Risks
  244. 9 ‘bilities’ (A MAP FOR US)
    Maintainability: The ability of a unit to be restored within a specified time to its
    performance capability under the environmental operating conditions within a
    specified, average period of time
    Usability: is the ability of a product to perform its intended function for the specified
    user under the prescribed conditions
    Reliability: is the degree to which a unit of equipment performs its intended function
    under specific conditions for specified period of time
    Availability: is the probability of the product being capable of performing a required
    function when called upon
  245. Activity Resource Estimating involves determining what physical resources (People,
    Equipment, etc) and what quantities should be used and when they would be needed to
    perform project activities
  246. Physical limitations are an attribute of “Mandatory Dependencies
  247. A Project Phase is “Marked by the completion of one or more deliverables”
  248. A “Product Description” should define the relationship between the product that is being
    created and the business need
  249. Contingency Plans can be best described as “Planned responses to Risk Events”
  250. Staff assignments and resource availability are the outputs of “Acquire the Project Team”
  251. Complex and large projects would be more effectively managed in “Strong” and ‘Projectized” Structure
  252. If Changes are well defined, its Fixed Price Contract but if they are not then its T & M
  253. Contract Management Plan is an OUTPUT to “Select Seller Process”
  254. Punitive Damages are the damages intended to punish the wrong doer
  255. “Utility Theory” considers the pains or tolerance level a stakeholder has to risk
  256. There are three key components to a Risk
    o Risk Event (The Event)
    o Probability of the Event
    o Impact or Effects of the Event (Amount at Stake)
  257. Delhi technique is a “Consensus Technique”
  258. Residual Risk are those that “Remain” after Risk Responses have been taken
  259. Inputs to Performance Reporting are
    o Work Performance Information
    o Performance Measurements
    o Forecasted Completion
    o QC Measurement
    o Project Plan
    o Approved Change Requests and
    o Deliverables
  260. Interpersonal communication takes three forms
    o Verbal
    o Non-verbal and
    o Written
  261. When distributing information, the total message impact from the sender is
    1. 7% words ,
    2. 38% vocal tones and
    3. 55% body language
  262. A ‘Planning Package” is a WBS component below the control account but above the work
    package. It is used for planning unknown work content that does not have detailed schedule activities
  263. There are two types of “Decision Models” that can be used for Project Selection during the initiation Process
    o Comparative (Benefit measurement Rating) Models
    o Constrained (Mathematical Decision Models)
  264. Comparative (Benefit measurement Rating) Models
    o Decision Tree
    o Criteria Profiling
    o Weighted Factor
    o Q-Sorting
    o Delphi Technique
  265. Constrained (Mathematical Decision Models)
    o Logical Framework Analysis
    o Linear Program Programming
  266. The “Control Points” in the WBS used for isolated assignment to work centers are referred to as the “Control Account Plan”
  267. Control account Plan (CAP) is a management control point where the integration of scope,
    budget and schedule take place and where the measurement of performance takes place.
    These CAPS are placed at the selected management points in the WBS.
  268. Cost Estimates include All Resources to be charged to the Project
  269. A Control Account is a management control point that can be placed at selected management points of the WBS above the Work Package Level
  270. To convey information between two or more parties, the communication process must have a medium. The three most common media are
    o Visual
    o Auditory and
    o Tactile
  271. Four steps of performing RCA (Root Cause Analysis) are
    o Data Collection
    o Casual Factor Charting
    o Root Cause Identification
    o Recommendation Generating and Implementation
  272. Scatter Diagrams are used to investigate the possible relationship between two variables that both relate to the same “EVENT”
  273. BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) compares the benefits to the costs of the project where the Benefits are the same as Revenues or often referred to as the “Payback period”
  274. Project performance is impacted by Four Basic Cultures
    o World
    o National
    o Business and
    o Leadership
  275. When one considers their Culture to be superior, they are called “Ethnocentric”
  276. Use of personal space during social interaction is known as “Proxemics”
  277. Risk is the notion of dealing with “Uncertainty”
    o Knows at the extreme end of the Uncertainty Spectrum will definitely affect you,
    although you have no control over them
    o Knows-Unknowns are items that will affect you although you are not able to predict
    how or how much they will effect you
    o Unknown – Unknowns are items or situations whose existence we cannot imagine
    (Who knows?)
  278. A Records Management Systems is a specific set of processes, related control functions and automation tools used by the PM to manage contract documentation and records. Its the TT of Contract Administration Process
  279. Parametric (Top – Down) uses historical data and statistical relationships to determine costs
  280. Constructive team roles include Initiators, Information seekers, Information givers,
    Encouragers, Clarifiers, Harmonizers, Summarizers and Gate Keepers
  281. Destructive team roles include Aggressor, Withdrawer, Blocker, Devil’s advocate, Recognizer, Topic Jumper and Dominator
  282. “To Complete Performance Indicator” (TCPI) determines the cost performance efficiency
    required to complete the project within the original budget (BAC) or revised budget (EAC);
  283. TCPI > 1 is NOT good; To calculate TCPI, take the value of the work remaining over the value of funds remaining
  284. “Eustress” is a stress that will motivate and contribute to an increase in performance
  285. Quantitative based durations (Parametric technique) multiply a known element, like lines of code required by the time it takes to develop one line of code. The result is the total estimate for the activity
  286. Quality Metrics are the Outputs of Quality Planning. It is an operation definition that describes “what” something is and “how” it will be measured in very specific terms
  287. Straight-line depreciation is the simplest method of depreciating an asset and is frequently utilized on a project to determine its economic feasibility. Straight-line depreciation is a method that divides an asset’s cost and its expected salvage value by its expected utilization period
  288. Performance Reporting is an INPUT to all “Control” Process (Except Quality Control)
  289. Decision Trees are considered Quantitative while Influence diagram are considered
  290. Influence diagram shows the dependencies among the variables more clearly than the
    decision tree
  291. A “Bill of Material” (BOM) describes the product in terms of its assemblies, sub-assemblies
    and basic parts
  292. Allowing “Automatic Approval” of changes is a function of the Change Control System and
    NOT Configuration Management
  293. Contingency Plan document outlines the actions to be taken if an identified risk event should occur
  294. Variable and attribute sampling are forms of acceptance sampling.
    Variable sampling evaluates a characteristic measured on a numerical scale
    Attribute sampling tests for defective or non defective
  295. Parametric Modeling applies to only Project with Similar characteristics
  296. The point of total assumption (PTA) is a price determined by a fixed price plus incentive fee contract (FPIF) above which the seller bears all the loss of a cost overrun. It is also known as the "most pessimistic cost
  297. Variance analysis involves comparing actual project results to planned or expected results
  298. Trend analysis involves examining project results over time to determine if performance is


  1. thanks Sridhar for putting this together, I will for sure look at before my exam.


  2. Thank you Dejavu for stopping by and I am glad that you find the notes useful. I wish you all the best for your exam and hope to hear your success story soon.


  3. Thanks Sridhar for putting it together. This would relaly help in recapping before the exam

  4. Thanks Ramesh. All the best for your PMP Exam and do let me know if you would need any inputs from me.


  5. Hi Sridhar (young man),
    Thanks for putting this stuff on the domain which is accessible by the public and thanks again for putting it for free...this can be an asset for us which preparing for PMP exam. Inshallah i will be attempting the exam in 2nd week of Aug, 2008. one small question ? do you know that PMI is going to upgrade the PMBOK and PMP exam patern? anyone has any news on this?

  6. Hi
    Thanks for your notes, I found them really useful during my preparation and as a last read before the exam. I have mentioned you and your notes in my LL on the PMHub forum, hope it is ok(
    thanks again

  7. Samu

    Congrats for passing the exam and I am glad that my notes were helpful. Intend of sharing the notes have been vindicated by your compliments in PMHUB Forum. Appreciate it.


  8. Sarwat

    I hope I got your name correct. I do not believe that PMBOK is changing before the end of 2008 and we still have enough time. I would suggest that you give the exam as planned in August and I wish you all the best. Let me know if you have further questions from me.


  9. Hi Sridhar,

    Thanks ton! for sharing your hardwork - knowledge and help whole new PMP's community :)

    Take Care,

  10. Mamta
    Thank you for stopping by and I appreciate your kind words. I am glad that my notes are found to be useful for PMP aspirants


  11. Thanks Sridhar.....

    Your notes are really a wonderful source.....Your work is very well appreciated.

  12. Had as issue with item#33.
    PMBOK states that the range for ROM estimates is -50 to +100% (Pg. 161). Can you please verify.


  13. Vadhiya

    I agree that ROM estimate is mentioned differently at PMBOK and other places. ROM estimates are between -50% to +100% of actual; later estimates are between -10% and +15%. These are PMBOK definitions; other sources use the following definitions: order of magnitude (-25% to +75%), preliminary estimate (-15% to +50%), budget estimate (-10% to +25%), definitive estimate (-5% to +10%).

    I am sure that from an exam point of view you need not have to make a difficult choice on this. Your options would either have a range -50% to +100% or -25% to +75%. During my experience of solving various sample questions & actual exam I did not get any choice where *both* were given. So safer way is to keep both options in mind and practically keep in mind that ROM estimate is done on a very broader level and usually used when you are in a blind spot or to put it plainly, you do not have much historical data or specific inputs to estimate and you cannot give a ballpark estimate.
    Hope this helps


  14. Sridhar, I passed the exam :) you've been mentiond in my post

  15. Mais

    That is great news. Congratulations and we are very happy for you. More heartening is to know that my notes were helpful in a way and I guess my intent of sharing them are vindicated.
    Thank you for your kind words about my effort in your blog . I appreciate that.
    All the very best for your future endeavors Mais.


  16. dear sridhar, thank you very much for the notes.I am grateful to you for the kind help

  17. You are more than welcome Girish and all the very best for your PMP Exam


  18. Dear Sridhar ,
    Happy New Year 2009 to you . Thank you very much for sucha nice collection of notes for PMP ...I cleared the PMP on 30th Dec and want to extend my heart felt gratitude to you for these nutsheel revision..its really a great collection ..thanks very much .

  19. Dear Milind

    Wish you a very Happy and Prosperous New Year 2009. I am very happy that my notes helped and I wish you all the very best for all your future endeavors. If you would like we can be in touch through LinkedIn ( You can send an invite to

  20. Thanks Thanks Thanks Sridhar --- I just got my PMP. I revised every word in this blog in the morning before leaving for the exam -- it was extremely helpful. Superb notes bro - U ROCK!!

    can we get in touch at LinkedIn??

  21. Maruti

    I am glad that things worked out as planned for you and congratulations for your new professional certfication. You can certainly send me an invite to above mail id and we can stay in touch in LinkedIn.
    Take care and all the best to you

  22. Hi Sridhar,

    I have been browsing web from last 6 weeks to find a summary of all the things mentioned in PMBOK.

    This is the best I got it . I sincerely thank you for sharing this knowledgebank.


  23. Shallender
    Wishing you all the best for your exam.


  24. Hi Sridhar,

    I passed my PMP exam yesterday. I really want to thank you for sharing your PMP Notes. It is an excellent set of notes to have a quick glance on the day before the exam. And it covers almost all the PMP topics that I came across while preparing for the exam.

    Thanks once again.


  25. Congratulations Vivek for your new acquired professional certification. I am glad that you found my notes useful.
    All the best for your future endeavors.

  26. Dear Sridhar,

    I am glad to inform you that I passed my PMP exam yesterday. Thanks for your beautiful notes it worked like charm for formatting my brain a couple of days before the final assault. Simply fantabulous and magnificient to see proficient in planning/executing/m&c and mod proficient in ethics/closing/initiation. I owe my success and scores to your helpful notes. I will spread the word about your helpful notes to the rest of the community. Thanks again......

  27. Hi Sridhar,

    I am glad to announce that I passed my PMP exam yesterday.I owe my success to you for putting up such beautiful condensed notes and formulas, which helped me immensly in my preparation and worked like charm for formating my brain before the final assault. I scored proficient in Planning/exec/m&C and mod.proficient in ethics/closing/initiation. I owe my success to your notes. Thanks for your cotribution to help the PMP community. Three Cheers to you again....Thanks.

  28. Hi Sridhar,

    I am glad to announce that I passed my PMP exam yesterday.I owe my success to you for putting up such beautiful condensed notes and formulas, which helped me immensly in my preparation and worked like charm for formating my brain before the final assault. I scored proficient in Planning/exec/m&C and mod.proficient in ethics/closing/initiation. I owe my success to your notes. Thanks for your cotribution to help the PMP community. Three Cheers to you again....Thanks.

  29. Congratulations Arun for your new professional certification. I am glad that my notes were helpful in a way. Wishing you many more successes and happiness in life


  30. Hi Sridhar,

    Your notes are really good. I am just starting preparing for the exam and feel that not only for the last minute brushing, even to start, the notes are good.

    I have a doubt/query, I would be appearing for the exam much after June 30th, 2009; which means that PMBok 4th version would be applicable.

    Your notes are based on PMBok 3rd edition, would these be useful even for the 4th edition ?


  31. Vikas

    Honestly I do not know how much it changed in PMBOK 4th Edition but what ever I have read and understood about the change, then most of the points in my notes should still be applicable.
    A complete list of changes can be found in Appendix A of the Fourth Edition.

    And this site gave me following details

    The major differences between the Third Edition and the Fourth Edition are summarized

    • All process names are in a verb-noun format
    • Enterprise Environmental Factors were more clearly defined to avoid confusion with
    Organizational Process Assets.
    • A standard approach for discussing requested changes, preventive actions,
    corrective actions and defect repairs was employed.
    • The processes decreased from 44 to 42. Two processes were deleted, two
    processes were added and 6 processes were reconfigured into 4 processes in the
    procurement Knowledge Area.
    • To provide clarity a distinction was made between the project management plan and
    project documents used to manage the project.
    • The distinction between the information in the Project Charter and the Project Scope
    Statement was clarified.
    • The process flow diagrams at the beginning of chapters 4-12 have been deleted and
    replaced with data flow diagrams.
    • A data flow diagram for each process has been created.
    • A new appendix was added that addresses key interpersonal skills that a project
    manager utilizes when managing a project.

    You can find lot of links by googling but for your sake below ones might help

  32. The blog is so informative and good explanation about the PMP and Project Management.

    PMP Certification, PMP Exam Preparation, PMP Courses, PMP Exam Simulation Software

  33. Hi Sridhar,
    Whoever you are, you are a genious. Honestly I have never seen such dedicated work.
    I am really impressed and I will try to create such notes based on PMBOK4 and will upload on your Blog.
    God Bless You..
    You should me a new way of learning and collecting notes.

    Kind regards,

  34. Wow thanks Amir. You really made it sound like I did a big deal where as I have not. I just thought of sharing with our community what ever I have learned from others and that is "Art of sharing!". I am a strong believer in the fact that 'the more you share, the more you gain'. So by sharing this post I actually did myself a favor.

  35. No. 233

    How can Project Closure happen before Contract Closure ?

    i think we need proj. management processes and resources to perform contract closure, so Project Closure should be the Last process after Contract Closure.
    Can you please eloborate on this ?

  36. Rishi
    Thats a good question. I am sharing, which clearly states with an example question

    our point of sale upgrade project is almost complete. You have outsourced the remote installation to three different companies to complete. As the project closes down, what will be done first?

    (a) Contract Closure
    (b) Assignment of contracts for the next phase
    (c) Release of resources
    (d) Closing the project (Correct)

    Explanation: Closing the project happens before contract closure. Release of resources is part of Closing the project. The other answer is noise.

    According to me Contract closure will happen first and then Project closure will happen as in project closure we need to archive all the documents including contract closure documents and then release the team. So According to me A should be the right answer

    Also another useful explanation is shared in
    which explains that the term contract closure refers to the process of completing all tasks and terms that are mentioned as deliverable and outstanding onthe initial drafting of the contract, In order for a contract to be ultimately and conclusively closed, the seller must have completed all components of his deliverables. So all formalities related to project closure must be fulfilled BEFORE contract closure because once contract closure is done, one cannot get back to documentation and other logistics for Project Closure. Hope this helps

  37. Dear Sridhar,

    Are the points and descriptions given are fro PMBOK 4 or they stand only for PMBOK 3?
    Please clarify.



  38. Moin
    Please refer to my earlier comment replaying to Vikas

  39. Thanks Sri,

    I hope to break the Jinx and pass out.
    All your notes are handy and will be usefull always.



  40. I wish you all the best Moin and I am sure you will do well.

  41. Hi Sridhar,

    I passed my PMP yday and I owe to your blog a lot. If its not for your blog I am 100% sure this wouldn't have be achieved. I wish to contribute some more points to this extensive list you have prepared. Soon I will get in touch with in this regard.

    Thanks for your everything,

  42. Vineel

    Heartiest Congratulations for your new credentials. I appreciate you attributing some success to what I shared. Even though I know its generous of you to say but hearing such comments make me feel vindicated for sharing the knowledge that I gained. Feel free to add from your end and I am sure everyone would appreciate that. Wishing you all success and happiness.

  43. Hi Sridhar,

    Do you have any notes/spreadsheet that will help to know and learn ITTO in beter and faster way?

    Thanks for all your PMP posts. They are really helpful.



  44. Parimal,

    There are many tricks and tips shared by others to learn ITTOs fast. Simply googling will get you many hits. I learned ITTOs by relating with a project and in case when an ITTO was not applicable, created an virtual phase in the project.

  45. I am consolidating links of where the comparisons between PMBOK 3rd edition vs PMBOK 4th are shared



    And there is a free webinar offered by IIL

  46. Sridhar,
    Firstly thanks much for sharing your ideas and notes with the community. I find you notes very helpful. I am a newbie to the PMP and just started getting to more abt PMP Certification. would you be able to suggest on how to get started with the process.
    Thanks in advance and great going.

  47. KK,
    I am glad that you find notes useful. Regarding giving you inputs on PMP, I would first need to know little more about your background and how much you understand about PMP. It would be easier for me to help if I already understand whether you have gone through to read about PMP, qualifications, screening process, exam, post pmp, etc.

  48. My PMI registration is about to expire in two months. If I file an application before two months and take the actual exam date after two months, is it possible?

  49. Anita,

    I am not sure if I understood your question. When you are asking "My PMI registration is about to expire in two months. If I file an application before two months and take the actual exam date after two months, is it possible?"
    What is "Possible"? Are you asking whether you can give an exam after your PMI registration has expired? Well thats definitely possible. Whether you are or not a PMI registered member has nothing to do with your ability/non ability to take up PMP exam. Being a member, you get discount and other obvious benefits but thats it. You are supposed to write the exam within one year of your application being accepted.
    Let me know if I am missing answering your question. All the best

  50. 144. Stakeholder analysis is a tool and technique Identify Stakeholder and not scope definition.
    Please correct, and thanks for such a nice summary of important points.


  51. Shiv,

    These notes are based on PMBOK V3 and in which 'Stakeholder Analysis' was T&T of 'Scope Definition' (Refer Fig 5.4 in PMBOK V3).

    I am sure you already have PMBOK V4 and would know the differences between V3 and V4.

    All the best for your preparation and exam

  52. Sridhar,

    I had referred your blog notes for PMP Asprirants of our Company. They all conveyed me the study notes was very useful for PMP exam.

    Great work done by you buddy!!!

    Thanks & Regards,
    Seshu Gopal Vundavalli
    General Manager Projects & Operations

  53. Hi Sridhar,
    I am working in IT company and have total 5 years of experience. I have chosed to do CAPM. Can you please help me how should I go about it...learning material...sample questions...and I need your suggestion also...Should I do CAPM or wait and do PMP?

  54. Akhil,

    CAPM would be ideal way to go if you do not have prior project management experience. If you are getting real world PM experience and have got 4+ years in it, then going for PMP would be ideal. I do not have resources on CAPM but if you google, you will have thousands of resources. My first recommendation would be going to pmhub forum ( and get pointers. Its a useful forum to get all relevant resources, sample questions links.
    My only suggestion would be to not gain knowledge to just pass the exam but to try aligning the knowledge gained to your work. This is the way to go in the long run. All the best and feel free to ask further questions

  55. Thanks for the notes Sridhar,
    - Hiren D. Vashi

  56. My goodness, great notes.
    THis will really help me for my exam in another 2 weeks.
    Thanks a tonnnnn Sridhar.


  57. Hi Sridhar, thanks for posting this. VEry helpful indeed. Do you have any Condensed Notes on PgMP Preparation?

  58. Thanks Nahid, I do have some condensed notes for PgMP too, which I plan to share soon.

  59. 1. If a project Manager calls for a meeting with the project team to review the knowledge gained from previous projects, in what manner is the team involved?
    a.Identification of Scope
    b.Risk Identification
    c.Project status team meeting
    d.Scope Identification

    2.Through which channel, a perfect communication can take place between the project team member and the Project Manager?
    a.By written and oral communication
    b.Through daily status report
    c.Via formal chain of command
    d.By updating daily status reports

    3.If a Project Manager Places a purchase order for an equipment, which of the following will represent it?
    a.Investment on capital
    b.Cash-out flow

    I beleive the answeres are 1)b 2)a 3)a.
    Can you kindly confirm

  60. Dina,

    I concur with your answers 1)b 2)a 3)a

  61. Sridhar,
    I am planning to do the PMP on May 2010. Can you please let me know, how to memorize the ITTO for all PMBOK/Process. Do you suggest any easy method to memorize those. I really appreciate your Help


  62. Joe,

    I was able to remember the ITTOs by doing memory mapping with a project that I handled. Note that not all ITTOs would be applicable or relevant to any project. In such a case, create a dummy one for your project. For example, procurement might not be applicable, but then just create a dummy and relate applicable ITTOs to the project.
    What really helped me was, taking a big cardboard and pasting all ITTOs to it. I then kept the cardboard at a place where I can see it and while doing most of my day-day activities, refer to it and get familiar with the flow.
    Also there are some sites (like that have tips to easily remember ITTOs

    When you go to exam, you will get 10 mins or so to read through instructions. You can use the time to do brain dump the ITTOs. Let me know if there are more questions and all the very best for your PMP.

  63. Hi Sridhar,

    I am Vijay from Singapore. Started PMP prep. Hope all your nutshell tips will help me in my prep. My heartfelt thanks for that. Will keep you posted about my prep status.

  64. Hi Sridhar,

    Thanks for your help, Myself Abdul..I did MBA finance and I worked 3 years as an Financial Analyst and now I am working in IT company from 2 years as a Project Accountant and as well as contract management coordinator. Having a background of management study and interest I would like to work with management like PMP. I need your help luckily I have got your block when myself searching in Google. Please give your advice whether I can write PMP exam or not?

  65. Abdul,
    Thanks for stopping by. I see that you have got good background but seems to be missing the prerequisite 3 years of project management experience needed for PMP. If you think you have done any sort of project management that could be summed up for 3 years then you should be fine. I would suggest that you use Cornelius Fichtner's excel worksheet ( and fill it out and see if you get the pre-requisite hours. All the best

  66. Sridhar
    Your notes is the best I have seen. I failed last year as most of the questions I faced were choose the best answer. There are many ways of doing a project. If my second best answer is wrong, then why there is a change control board if everything is as per the exam's right answer. I found all the results in one of the formula question was wrong and unfortunately I have to choose one

    My point is, do you think the way the person or persons set the right answers is correct all the time?

    I am writing the exam again in two months. If not I will write again the new exam in october 2011

    Thank you
    Guru Rawji M. Sc Toronto Canada

  67. Guru Rawji,
    I am glad that you find my notes useful. I agree with you that answer to certain situational questions need not necessarily mimic real time. Not all projects are executed necessarily the same way and its very difficult to say what answers the question best. Having said that, PMI standard is the documented work of experts in their respective domain and people have opinions, so there could be a contradiction there of 'what is perceived as right' versus 'what is situational right'. For passing the PMP, one needs to go with the 'standard' more than anything else. I am sure you will do fine. Keep practicing as many sample questions as possible. Formulas should not be very complex, just be on purpose. Let me know if you need any help or pointers. I am sure you will do just fine in your next attempt.


  68. Shridhar, its so amazing that you are doing so much for public, these favours will definitely pay you back someday for sure.
    Your collection is really comprehensive.
    I am taking my PMP exam next month and have started my preparation

  69. Thanks alot I just took my test yesterday and I passed. I just read your notes and the Rita book two times.


  70. Heartiest congratulations Kashan. I am glad that my notes helped. All the best for your future endeavors

  71. Hi Sridhar, I used your notes and PMPrepCast to prepare for my exam on 10/08/2011. I failed. (That was my second attempt). My last chance is due on 11/21/11. I hope to study harder and pass this time. Any suggestions, advice?

  72. Sorry to hear Phu. I would suggest that first do a retrospection of what were the weak areas based on the test result. Rule of the thumb that worked for me and most of the folks I know is to attempt the exam only when you are getting ~85-90% in all practice tests. Concentrate more on weak areas. If not checked PMHUB, I would suggest check their forum and also refer the notes shared by folks in PMP section. I am sure you will be fine next time and all the very best to you

  73. Hello Sridhar,

    I am an MBA and has diplomas' in software education and has years of experience in project management and other related areas. I do not have any PMP certification. I have recently enrolled in Stanford Advanced Project Management Program with a desire to earn a coveted credential of SCPM designation and that too from a top notch University of the world. I am not in touch with management and other studies in terms of academics as I passed my MBA years ago, also I am not anymore inclined towards mathematical subjects like quantitative methods etc. I request you to guide me on how to proceed further and which subjects should I choose as electives keeping in mind that I am not inclined towards solving hardcore mathematical problems. Also, give me guidance on how to do a planned study as also I wish to complete this program in some weeks like you.


  74. Saumesh,
    Do not worry about mathematical aspects. They are not complicated. Our Indian education system puts a great deal of emphasize on Maths and Science and that's good enough platform for us to weather the practical needs in daily life. Now what electives to select, that's going to be based on your need and what are your goals. I had selected following three
    1. Project Risk Management
    2. Leading Effective Teams
    3. Financial Mastery for Projects
    since it aligned with my needs
    I hope to help more if you give me more specific details. All the best

    1. Hi Sridhar,

      Do you have your corrected answers for SCPM programs as I am enrolled in this program and so many times I struggle for just one or two more corrected answers and for that I have to watch entire video, right now I got 80% in the elective examination "converting strategy...." and I need just three more answers and for that I have to watch the entire video again and if I try to answer them by hit and trial method, they just go down like 70% etc since it does not show which answers were wrong.

      Your help will be highly appreciated.

      you can email me at


    2. Sorry but I do not have my answer sheet for SCPM. I would suggest that you strategies answering questions by grouping them in categories of confidence levels. Sole purpose of this course is to keep folks honest and gain knowledge. Unfortunately I cannot help much with answering questions

  75. Sridhar,

    Thank you so much for your reply. I am selecting following courses but if you think I should take other subjects like Project Risk Management etc, then please guide me:

    Designing the Organization for Execution
    Leading Effective Teams
    Mastering the Project Portfolio

    Also again I request you to give me give me guidance on how to do a planned study as also I wish to complete this program in some weeks like you


  76. Saumesh,
    Again, selecting electives is based on your goals. 'Project Risk Management' is an universal topic, which can be applied to project, program or Org. I personally feel understanding, identifying, monitoring & controlling risks is very important to successfully manage anything. So i went ahead with it.

    Now regarding how to plan study. Well in order to make the most of the knowledge gained during sessions, I aligned them with my current program and Org. I tried to map what is being covered in the sessions with my program/Org's tasks/events. I found the sessions to be very easy paced and with a good flow. Since you cannot pass the exam without actually covering all sessions and materials, it makes you pay attention to details. Let me know if you have further questions

  77. Hi Sridhar,

    I have passed my PMP exam on first attempt with Proficient in all doamins on 28th Dec. Your notes were really helpful although I have found some of these still aligned to PMBOK 3rd edition but last day it helps a lot to revise all.

    My suggestion to everyone is read from PMBOK and try to understand most concepts rather than mugging. Also understand the key document elements such as Project charter contents, Scope Statement Contents, WBS, WBS Dictionary, Schedule Data, RTM etc. Once you know what all it contains it would help you in many questions. Also try to make logical groupings of Input and Output to remember them.

    I would post more detailed lessons learned in a while. Till then bye.

    Really happy to start this new year as a PMP


  78. Congratulations Vishal and thank you for sharing your LL's. I have also shared some notes from PMBOK V4 under

  79. Sridhar,

    Thanks for publishing these notes! I used them to study for the PMP and passed this morning. It was very helpful to have a quick list to reference right before taking the exam.


  80. Congratulations Cherice. I am glad that you found my notes helpful. I appreciate you coming back to share it with us. All the very best for your endeavors.

  81. Thanks for your notes Sridhar, it was a good way of quick revision before the exam. I cleared my exam yday and revised your notes one day before yday.

  82. Congratulations justrohin. I am glad my notes helped

  83. AstroWix is providing valuable classroom training for the professional who are looking to get PMP Certified in a quick succession. They provides world class quality training along with the sure shot success study material which helps us to prepare well in cracking the PMP exam on very first attempt. Visit :-

  84. wonderful information, I had come to know about your blog from my friend nandu , hyderabad,i have read atleast 7 posts of yours by now, and let me tell you, your website gives the best and the most interesting information. This is just the kind of information that i had been looking for, i'm already your rss reader now and i would regularly watch out for the new posts, once again hats off to you! Thanks a ton once again, Regards, PMP online trainingamong the PMP in Hyderabad. Classroom Training in Hyderabad India

  85. A question about 186. Remember that you cannot perform Schedule Development until you have completed all
    the following processes of project Planning: Scope Planning, Scope Definition, Create WBS,
    Risk Identification, Risk Response Planning, Plan Purchases and Acquisitions, Activity
    Resource Estimating, Activity Definition, Activity Sequencing, and Activity Duration

    Isnt Schedule Development an iterative process?

  86. If you are looking for a PMP Training provider I would suggest . School of PM offers review courses for Project Management Professional (PMP®) certification exam conducted by PMI®. If you are planning to take the PMP® examination please logon to for more information.

    For PMP exam, so many companies are providing Live Online Classes, Live On-site and On-demand class options.

    If you are planning to take the PMP examination, For better results increase your confidence by enrolling in a Review Course offered by the School of PM.

  87. Wow! I really amazed for this good job. Thank you for sharing those details that can really useful on pmp.

  88. Glad to have found this while preparing for the PMP exam, though I am sitting for the PMBOK 5th Edition, your notes is still very valuable! Thanks!

  89. well, everything seemed to be doing so fine and thanks for the notes...

  90. Thanks for issuing such good writings.It really helps us on PM .Thanks again sridhar

  91. Can anyone suggest abt Online PMP caertification ?

  92. Scrum is undeniably the winner of the agile method wars. Thanks to the's vast network of Certified Scrum Trainers and Agile Certification Courses.

  93. The PMP Certification establishes a common language among project managers and helps each other work within a common framework. Once you have the PMP, you need to consider how you're applying the processes, tools, and techniques to projects. I took a training course for my preparation in and got ready for the exam on day 5!

  94. I would say that a PMP Certification is highly respected within both IT & non-IT communities where strong project management skills are required. If you plan on a long term career as a project manager, then yes, even with your level of experience, I would suggest getting your PMP. You can prepare yourself for the exam in one of the PMP trainingproviders like You can do minimal prep-work to get 40 PMI® Contact Hours and apply to PMI for PMP Exam before the class begins.

  95. It will definitely ease your work of handling a big project. As a project manager I use scrum in my projects. One of my friends referred me to use the Guide to Scrum Body of Knowledge by I like the concepts of sprints, daily standup meetings, etc. the SBOK Helped me alot in Understanding how Agile Project Management works.

  96. I have taken a 4 -day classroom boot camp for my PMP Certification at I found it excellent as all courses are conducted in a high-class environment, with all study materials. Thanks to for my success! 

  97. Scrum is undeniably the winner of the agile method wars. Thanks to the's vast network of Certified Scrum Trainers and Agile Certification Courses.

  98. The PMP Certification establishes a common language among project managers and helps each other work within a common framework. Once you have the PMP, you need to consider how you're applying the processes, tools, and techniques to projects. I took a training course for my preparation in and got ready for the exam on day 5!

  99. Thanks for your article, its looks interesting and providing some valuable information.Please post some more articles and mean while please check for those who are searching for Pmp Exam , pmp certification PMP Online Classes

  100. Hi I am a chip designer in the SF bay area and want to transition away from hardware, will doing SCPM help me find a technical program management job in a SW company?

  101. Another way to future proof your career is to always keep acquiring new skills and get certified. PMP Certification is grt if you're at a project management level or aspire to be in has a great free test if you'd like to gauge your project management knowledge.The PMP Certification

  102. Hi, I cleared my PMP exam with only one month preparation and training. I went through the PMBOK guide fully and answered few mock exams but I have to thank you for this blog as it really helped for last minute brush up on all the concepts.

  103. Your blog was very helpful for a quick revision before the exam. Thanks a lot for sharing your notes.

  104. Well balanced course, great people, and fantastic environment. Thanks to ExcelR in providing me good knowledge in project management training.
    project management training

  105. I envisioned to be guaranteed in Project Management Professional and it moved toward becoming reality with PMI-PMP exam dumps. It is stunningly composed material by the certified specialists. I am so energized for my prosperity and loaded up with generous a debt of gratitude is in order for to be so valuable. It is right to state that it is an IT learning center point which can promise you for progress with PMI-PMP test ponder material.

  106. Hi, Great.. Tutorial is just awesome..It is really helpful for a newbie like me.. I am a regular follower of your blog. Really very informative post you shared here. Kindly keep blogging.
    PMP Certificate training in Hyderabad
    Best PMP Certificate training in Hyderabad
    Top PMP Certificate training in Hyderabad
    PMP Certificate training in Pune

  107. The best dumps material which I have every used is PMP dumps material. For me it, is the main source of all the knowledge that I have regarding the field. PMI PMP dumps pdf covers all the necessary information in a very concise form.

  108. It was not simple to dare say pass my IT exam before I downloaded PMI-PMP exam study material from I got confidence when I perused the informative and useful questions and answers written by the well qualified experts. I got a thorough understanding of the syllabus with PMI-PMP questions and answers and attempted all the questions confidently.

  109. I was confused for the selection of a proper study material to prepare for my PMP exam. Then one of my friends recommended me to use PMP dumps PDF to pass my certification with sure. I am fully satisfied after this successful experience with PMP exam dumps. I have got my desired result in the final test.

  110. Thanks for Sharing This Article.It is very so much valuable content. I hope these Commenting lists will help to my website
    workday studio online training

  111. Thanks for Sharing This Article.It is very so much valuable content. I hope these Commenting lists will help to my website
    microservices online training

  112. Thank a lot for this post that was very interesting. Keep posting like those amazing posts, this is really awesome :)
    Looking for PMP Training & Certification, visit on:
    PMP Certification

  113. I read your blog on daily basis. This is really great and informative post. Thanks for sharing.
    Project Management in Toronto